Surprisingly one of the biggest mysteries in history is still the formation of states. If we spent more than 90% of our human existence in egalitarian hunter-gatherer bands that have no formal leadership, how did people come to accept living in inegalitarian states with huge inequalities rather than running away…

Poststructuralism has been characterised by opposing previously held beliefs about the nature of humans and our cultures. It is anti-universalist and anti-essentialist i.e. doesn’t believe in universal principles that could explain human nature and culture, as there is basically no such thing (essence). Even though most people would agree with a wide variety of human and cultural phenotypes, few would agree with this kind of relativistic view.

Poststructuralism opposes any grand meta-narratives that explain historic trajectories and predict future trajectories. Marxism is probably the best example of such a grand narrative. What could be more proof of poststructuralism than the failure of the implementation of Marxism all around the globe? We have come to live in a…

Jonathan Haidt found in his research that liberals and conservatives have different moral foundations, with liberals caring mostly about fairness and harm and conservatives additionally about authority, sanctity (purity) and ingroup loyalty.

He later added liberty to the liberal foundation. Haidt’s research makes it seem that conservatives are more moral…

The Dawn of Everything: A New History of Humanity (2021) by David Graeber and David Wengrow is a highly recommendable read. Even though the authors arrive at the opposite conclusion than I, i.e. that egalitarian hunter-gatherer bands are a myth whereas I think egalitarianism is “baked into” hunter-gatherers in contrast…

Andreas Hofer

teacher

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